Al-Idah https://www.al-idah.pk/index.php/al-idah <p>Al-Idah is an International peer reviewed, Open Access,HEC approved “Y” category, bi-annual research journal. Its domain is Islamic Studies&amp; theology and we encourage submissions related to the contemporary challenges by the Muslim Ummah. Our focus lies in the spreading of true progressive moderate and adoptive picture of Islam that embraces diversity and difference. The essence of Islam lies in peace and tolerance.</p> <p>More specifically, Al- Idah takes&nbsp;regular submissions from academic professionals and&nbsp;researchers&nbsp;belongs toUloom e Quran,Hadith and Rules of Hadith, Seerat e Nabvi,&nbsp; Jurisprudence, Islamic History, Comparative Jurisprudence, Comparative Study of Religion,, Anti Extremism, Social Sciences and&nbsp;related disciplines.</p> <p>With this aim the articles may be addressed to any related issues – social, economic, political, technological, theological- falling in the domain of theology and Islam. Our mission is to create awareness and spread the authentic teachings of Islam. Today Al-Idah is the luminary in the research world due to the acumen of its valued contributors and their high- quality research parameters that make it what it is.</p> en-US al_idah@uop.edu.pk (Editor) al_idah@uop.edu.pk (Assistant Editor) Sun, 31 Dec 2023 00:00:00 -0500 OJS 3.1.2.0 http://blogs.law.harvard.edu/tech/rss 60 Introduction to the Tafsir (Exegesis) 'Aziz al-Tafaseer' by Sheikh Sultan Aziz: A Descriptive and Evaluative Study https://www.al-idah.pk/index.php/al-idah/article/view/868 <p>This research paper highlights the Introduction to <em>Aziz al- Tafasir</em> and reviews scholarly contribution of Shaikh Sultan Aziz (1936-2013) in the field of exegesis. He is one of the famous Pashtun scholars who lived in the 20th century in Afghanistan. The cited work is the main contemporary exegetical work in the Pashto language which comprises of 13 volumes. This analytical study of interpretation focuses on deriving the true spirit of the message of Islam. The article sheds light on his biography as well and brings forth his phenomenal contribution in reforming Afghan society. Hereby an attempt is being made to offer a review of <em>Aziz al-Tafseer </em>through &nbsp;descriptive mode of study and evaluation.</p> Enayatullah Adil, Hidayat Ur Rahman Kafeel Copyright (c) 2023 Al-Idah https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://www.al-idah.pk/index.php/al-idah/article/view/868 Wed, 20 Dec 2023 00:00:00 -0500 The Status and Virtue of Knowledge in the Quran: An Objective Quranic Study https://www.al-idah.pk/index.php/al-idah/article/view/870 <p>In this article, an attempt has been made to reveal the position of the Holy Qur'an in relation to the corpus of knowledge. The chapters of Quran are named appropriately according to the content of the verses. The Qur'an attributes great value to knowledge. There are hundreds of words related to knowledge in the Qur'an and it has been mentioned as a common attribute of all Prophets. More so the study of sciences and empirical investigation is held obligatory in Islam. The benefits of knowledge have also been analyzed in the light of the Holy Quran in this article.</p> Nasrumminallah Mujahid, Ghulam Muhammad Muhib Copyright (c) 2023 Al-Idah https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://www.al-idah.pk/index.php/al-idah/article/view/870 Wed, 20 Dec 2023 00:00:00 -0500 The Relationship Between Legislative Guarantees, Sharia Guarantees, and International Agreements and Treaties for the Protection of Human Rights https://www.al-idah.pk/index.php/al-idah/article/view/875 <p>Human rights is one of the most important topics that has received attention at the national, regional and international levels, and this is embodied through the national interest in the Jordanian political system. The rights and freedom of Jordanians are succinctly stipulated in the introduction to the Jordanian constitution and includes personal, social, religious, political and economic rights and constitutions. The countries of the world have texts related to respecting general human rights in various fields as they include international treaties and charters issued by the United Nations General Assembly and international organizations. The human rights are the epitome of Islamic laws which not only frame the basic rights and freedom of individuals but are inclusive of the rights and freedom stipulated in international treaties, charters, and state constitutions. The Quran and Sunnah endorse the supremacy of constitution and protection of human rights and regulate these laws through the Constitutional Acts and protects the rights and freedom stipulated in international constitutions, treaties and conventions</p> Ayman Mohammed abd alhy al btoosh Copyright (c) 2023 Al-Idah https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://www.al-idah.pk/index.php/al-idah/article/view/875 Wed, 20 Dec 2023 00:00:00 -0500 The Prophet's Marriage to Syeda Aisha (may Allah be pleased with her): Between Narrations and Rational Understanding. https://www.al-idah.pk/index.php/al-idah/article/view/869 <p>This research addresses and analyzes the topic of the Prophet's marriage to Ummul Momineen Hazrat Ayesha (May Allah be pleased with her). Various doubts have been cast over this marriage of the Holy Prophet (SAWW) by the Orientalist scholars. However, no act of the Prophet (SAWW) has been devoid of edification and instruction of the Muslims for all times to come. His words, conduct and <em>Seerah</em> are a permanent valid source of guidance for all humanity. This article aims to bring forth the stance of Islamic scholars - both ancient and contemporary - on this subject. In the first section, the main themes of criticism (by the non-believers) on this holy union have been summed up. The next section discusses how the Muslim scholars of contemporary age and of antiquity have responded to these allegations.</p> Aiman Mahmood Mahdi Copyright (c) 2023 Al-Idah https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://www.al-idah.pk/index.php/al-idah/article/view/869 Wed, 20 Dec 2023 00:00:00 -0500 The Principles of Moderation https://www.al-idah.pk/index.php/al-idah/article/view/867 <p>This study aims to derive the principles that can be used to assess moderation from a <em>Shariah</em> perspective and consequently to safeguard the notion of Islamic moderation from trends that deviate from Islamic principles under the guise of moderation. These days moderation is synonymous of complete submission to international laws even if they contradict Sharia. This undoubtedly contradicts the true concept of moderation, which as revealed in the study means adhering to the Islamic principles without extremism or negligence. The study concludes that the most important principles for achieving moderation at both the individual and collective levels of the Muslim community lies in adherence to Quran and Sunnah while avoiding extremism and negligence. Descriptive, analytical, and historical methods of research have been used in this research article.</p> Ahmad Ahmad Esmayel Salem Copyright (c) 2023 Al-Idah https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://www.al-idah.pk/index.php/al-idah/article/view/867 Wed, 20 Dec 2023 00:00:00 -0500 The Role of the Islamic Cooperation Organization's Charter in Promoting the Culture of Human Rights https://www.al-idah.pk/index.php/al-idah/article/view/835 <p>The Organization of Islamic Cooperation (OIC) is a collective voice of the Muslim world in the modern era. It seeks to put together the efforts of Muslims, their capabilities and resources to achieve the advancement and development as well as to find a privileged position for its member States in the international arena. The organization is keen to promote and disseminate a culture of human rights amongst its Member States. &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> <p>In this research, common aspects between the Charter of the Organization of Islamic Cooperation and the International and Regional Charters of human rights are reviewed. The articles in the charter of the Organization where concern is shown to spread a culture of peace and security at all levels as well as promotion of values like justice, equality, the right to self-determination, acquisition of knowledge, protection of environment, more empowered women and the like. The rights stated in the international and regional human rights charters are almost the same. &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> <p>The research focuses the need to ensure sustainable co-existence and harmony through reviewing national constitutions and parameters for joint work with better regional and international cooperation through conventions like the Charter of OIC and its implementation through parliamentary,national and municipal committees.</p> Mohamad Rabih Ahmad Harrouk Copyright (c) 2023 Al-Idah https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://www.al-idah.pk/index.php/al-idah/article/view/835 Wed, 20 Dec 2023 00:00:00 -0500 The Educational Approaches for Preventing Ethical Corruption in Islam https://www.al-idah.pk/index.php/al-idah/article/view/853 <p>The fabric of any good society has always been woven with its virtuous individuals. Islam promulgates moral values in all members of society and bars individuals from indulging in moral corruption. It advocates measures to curb such evils as lying, cheating, betrayal, exploitation, consuming forbidden (haram) things, spreading rumors and others. It also aims to inculcate virtues like patience, forgiveness, reconciliation, restraining anger, being kind and merciful to those who have wronged, helping out the needy and the destitute. This edification is a noble human goal deeply rooted in Islamic thought as Islam is a primarily the religion of peace. Islam presents God as the Benign and Merciful Creator and His last Prophet as Mercy sent for this world and Hereafter.</p> <p>&nbsp;The study is divided into two sections: The inculcation of virtuous values and prohibition of moral evils in any society through effective <em>Shariah</em> rulings.</p> Abdullah Amur Saif al Mamari Copyright (c) 2023 Al-Idah https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://www.al-idah.pk/index.php/al-idah/article/view/853 Wed, 20 Dec 2023 00:00:00 -0500 The Cultural and Historical links between Turks and Afghans in the First Era of Islam https://www.al-idah.pk/index.php/al-idah/article/view/714 <p>Though Turks and Afghans are located far off geographically yet it may not be perceived as a marker of friction between the two nations. The Islamic history in the middle Ages reveal that Islam has spread in the Turkish and Afghan regions amongst the indigenous tribes heralded a marked cultural and linguistic influence in the cited regions.</p> <p>&nbsp;The Turks' contact with the Islamic world started in the era of four Caliphs and the Umayyad dynasty reaching out to the western regions of the "<em><u>Bab</u></em>" region adjacent to Turkish territory in 22 AH. This contact resulted in the spread of Islam amongst the Turks and their men took part as part of Muslim army leading to propagation of Islam. Moreover, In the Abbasid era, the number of Turks assuming leadership positions had increased in the Muslim state. This contact sustained in the Islamic world to the East in the Turkish areas after the Muslims crossed the <em><u>JIHUN</u></em> River (Amu Darya) in 31 AH under the leadership of <em><u>QUTAYBA Ibn Muslim</u></em>. Thus Islam spread among the Turk Tribes under the rule of the <em>SAMANI </em>Governors where they spearheaded the extension of Muslim influence to Tirmiz, Bukhara, Samarkand and other Central Asian countries due to the simplicity of Islam.</p> <p>&nbsp;As for the Afghans' contact with Islam in the West, it began in the era of four Caliphs and the Umayyads eversince Herat was conquered in the year 23 AH; <em><u>Jawzjan</u></em>, <em><u>Balkh</u></em> and <em><u>Takhar</u></em> in the year 32 AH by Al-Ahnaf bin Qais from northern Afghanistan; <em><u>Zabul</u></em> in the year 43 AH and Kabul in 44 AH by <em><u>Abd al-Rahman bin Samra</u></em>. However the eastern areas of Afghanistan and the <em><u>Khyber Pakhtunkhwa</u></em> in Pakistan, although Islam reached there in the first century, did not enter the Islamic rule. They remained either under the tribal control or were ruled by the Indian kings until the Ghaznavids took over through Prince <em><u>Subuktagin</u></em> in <em><u>Ghazni</u></em> in the last decade of the 4<sup>th</sup> century.</p> <p>There has remained direct contact between the Turks and Afghans after the displacement of the Turkish tribes to the <em><u>Gazani</u></em> state in the south of the <em><u>Jihun</u></em> River.The state sovereignty of the Turkish majority was due to their leadership positions and a large part of the military formation included the Turks and Afghans. Hence the two nations lived with a clear linguistic and cultural influence with hundreds of basic words in common as for instance the Turkish names for Afghan men and women and dozens of Turkish names for villages and cities. There are even common tribal traditions and customs between the two peoples.</p> <p>This research addresses the historically direct contact between the Turkish and Afghan tribes with cultural and social impact between the Turks and Afghans</p> Mir Akbar Shah Copyright (c) 2023 Al-Idah https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://www.al-idah.pk/index.php/al-idah/article/view/714 Wed, 20 Dec 2023 00:00:00 -0500 A Comparative Analysis Of The First-Ever Written Constitution, The Magna Carta And The Charter Of Medina https://www.al-idah.pk/index.php/al-idah/article/view/865 <p>The Charter of Madinah is not the world's first written constitution though it has the highest covenant and constitutional characteristics in terms of its content and meaning. The covenant is a distinct constitution emblematic of the Quran and Sunnah. In the light of this constitution, not only Ansaar and Muhajirin but Jews and other minorities lived amicably in Madinah. The Charter of Madinah carries all the fundamental features that an ideal constitution should have. According to the treaty, Madinah was considered the 1<sup>st</sup> Islamic state which had won acceptance of all the Jewish tribes and clans of other minorities living within the premises of Madinah. In the constitution, the rights of Muslims were explicitly mentioned and it was ensured that rights of all minorities are protected. The treaty was held abiding by all the residents of Medina and all were required to observe the rights of each other.&nbsp;Some historians report that the Magna Carta was the first International treaty or constitution which was reportedly written down in 1215 during the era of King John-I of England. In this article, a comparative analysis has been made between both constitutions focusing the minorities’ rights.</p> Owais Anwer, Muhammad Ishaq Alam Copyright (c) 2023 Al-Idah https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://www.al-idah.pk/index.php/al-idah/article/view/865 Wed, 20 Dec 2023 00:00:00 -0500 An Analysis on the Challenges of Media in the Field of Da’wah https://www.al-idah.pk/index.php/al-idah/article/view/887 <p>Dawah or proselytization is the core of Islam and it inherently promotes preaching and teaching others which need to be molded according to the prevailing circumstances. Today media has a great impact on human beings so we should introduce expert personnel in media to promulgate message of Islam in an effective way. Media is a powerful tool to spread message quickly.&nbsp;</p> <p>In this article the challenges of media in the field of Da’wah are being reviewed.</p> Muhammad Ayub Anwar, Abzahir Khan, Nazeehat Bibi Copyright (c) 2023 Al-Idah https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://www.al-idah.pk/index.php/al-idah/article/view/887 Wed, 20 Dec 2023 00:00:00 -0500 Rights and Responsibilities of Non-Muslim Citizens in Pakistan: Some Reflections from Madina Charter https://www.al-idah.pk/index.php/al-idah/article/view/840 <p>Every aspect of the Holy Prophet's (PBUH) life is a treasury of deep wisdom and guidance. The focus of this article is to study an important aspect of his Seerah i.e. as a ruler. The Madina state was a state which had a confederation of units with socio- political autonomy. The Holy Prophet (SAWW) made various covenants for the development and better defense of the Madina state. The charter of Madina is the basic document that allows us to understand various aspects of his governance. He set out the rights and duties of all citizens including non-Muslims including the Jewish tribes who have been living there since long and had almost occupied the financial resources of Medina. Therefore, there was a need to regulate this anomaly and establish a balance in society through judicious allocation of rights and duties within an Islamic state. Their role was so defined so as to ensure development and stability of the State. The Madina charter guaranteed protection of all kinds of religious, political and social rights and liberties. Thus the Madina charter is a key document to study how a peaceful society may be established. It sheds light on his political and constitutional struggle.&nbsp; This study is an effort to investigate the Charter of Madina as to how the rights of religious minorities are secured and to draw a comparison of their rights and duties in the constitution of Pakistan, an Islamic State. An analytical research methodology is adopted in this study the above cited topic.</p> <p>Keeping the charter of Madina in view, a few similarities between the State of Madina and Pakistan are drawn. The constitution of Pakistan also guarantees religious freedom and holds that a citizen may practise any religion. These&nbsp; and other similarities shall be highlighted in this study.</p> Riaz Ahmad Saeed, Hafiz Muhammad Aftab Khan Copyright (c) 2023 Al-Idah https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://www.al-idah.pk/index.php/al-idah/article/view/840 Wed, 20 Dec 2023 00:00:00 -0500 Academic Curriculum of Universities and Madrassas and the Modern Era Requirements https://www.al-idah.pk/index.php/al-idah/article/view/886 <p>Education plays a key role in any society. The educational institutions make societies and promote cultural values of society. A strong educational base in any country strengthens a nation. Curriculum of any country reflects the educational system of a country which is directly related to cultural values and norms of any society. Islam gives a clear and comprehensive guideline about the curriculum.</p> <p>When the British took over the sub-continent, they not only replaced Persian language with English as a medium of instruction and modified syllabi as well. In this grave situation wherein the British prevailed as an authority over the Indian Muslims, the Muslim clergy set up a Madrassa with purely Islamic values in Deoband in order to safeguard the religious identity of the Muslims. Later Aligarh College was established that offered a fusion of English and Islamic studies. However, the dual educational set-up weakened the ethos of Muslims in the sub-continent. This article aims to review the dual educational system i.e. Madrassa system and mainstream university education systems prevalent in Pakistan.</p> Abzahir Khan, Muhammad Ayub Anwar, Huma Gul Copyright (c) 2023 Al-Idah https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://www.al-idah.pk/index.php/al-idah/article/view/886 Wed, 20 Dec 2023 00:00:00 -0500 Stylistic Analysis of the Quran’s Chapter: Surah Al-Buruj https://www.al-idah.pk/index.php/al-idah/article/view/883 <p><em>The Quran </em>is a unique and miraculous book because it is the message of the Creator Almighty to His creation - the human beings (Ahmad, 2017). It is an accomplished and comprehensive code which guides human beings principally in all spheres of life: religious, family, political, social, spiritual, intellectual or economic (Ather &amp; Sobhani, 2007). It is an evergreen and versatile code which has no borders of time, place or nation. It is a miraculous book in letter and spirit which is way beyond in its unique stylistics to any literary epic. This article aims to bring forth stylistic analysis of Surah Al Buruj.</p> Riaz Ullah, Hafiz Javed ur Rehman, Athar Farooq Copyright (c) 2023 Al-Idah https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://www.al-idah.pk/index.php/al-idah/article/view/883 Wed, 20 Dec 2023 00:00:00 -0500 A Comparative Study on Educational Ethics: Insights from Islamic Educational Philosophy and Western Literature https://www.al-idah.pk/index.php/al-idah/article/view/884 <p><em>This research paper deals with the complex facet of moral framework in education. It juxtaposes a millennia-old Islamic educational philosophy with diverse ethical narratives of Western literature. Islamic educational philosophy is emblematic of the teachings of Quran and Hadith hence scholars like Al-Attas (2005) in Islamic philosophy: An Introduction and Rizavi (1963) in Islamic Philosophy of Education have elucidated the main principles of Islamic education.</em><em>Islamic philosophy of education emphasizes an integrative approach. It combines knowledge acquisition with ethical and moral growth. This philosophy anchors itself in the Quran and Hadith and hence advocates for the holistic development of individuals. The concept of Tarbiyah in this context is pivotal. It refers not just to education but also to nurturing and spiritual growth that aim for the formation of individuals who are intellectually capable, spiritually aware and morally upright (Al-Attas, 2005).</em><em>According to Shah (2015), in this tradition education transcends mere intellectual pursuit. It becomes a pathway to understanding and living a life aligned with Islamic tenets. It illuminates this aspect showing how Islamic education molds the character alongside the intellect. According to Al Zeera (2001) such an approach stands in contrast to more secular educational philosophies where moral and spiritual dimensions often remain distinct from academic pursuits.</em><em>Simultaneously the Western educational literature with its roots in Greco-Roman philosophy has evolved through Enlightenment and modern thought and presents a contrasting ethical paradigm. Notable works in this domain include Nodding’s (2010) works on educational philosophy and Biesta’s (2015) The Beautiful Risk of Education which explores the aspects of Western educational ethics.</em><em>Biesta (2015) explores the unpredictable nature of education. He challenges the prevailing focus on standardization and measurable outcomes in Western education. He argues for a more holistic approach that values the unique, the creative, and the unpredictable in educational processes. His work suggests that true educational excellence might lie in embracing uncertainty and supporting the individuality of learners.</em><em>Both the scholars contribute significantly to the discourse on Western educational ethics. Their works highlight a critical divergence from the communal, faith-based approach of Islamic philosophy. They present a narrative that values individual agency, critical thinking, and the development of personal, moral and ethical frameworks. This Western perspective provides a counterpoint to the Islamic view, enriching the global dialogue on educational ethics (Biesta, 2015; Noddings, 2010).</em><em>This study’s primary aim is a thorough analysis of ethical principles in Islamic and Western educational thought. It seeks to unearth the moral underpinnings and pedagogical implications within each tradition. The secondary aim is the evaluation of potential synergies between these frameworks. This inquiry proposes the integration of these diverse ethical narratives into contemporary educational ethic-based curricula that foster an inclusive and global ethical framework in education.</em><em>This study ventures beyond mere comparison. It endeavors to synthesize the ethical dimensions of these two rich traditions. Such a synthesis could offer fresh perspectives in the field of educational ethics that potentially transform how ethics are taught and understood in diverse educational settings. This comparative analysis may not only highlight the contributions of each tradition but also paves the way for a more integrated and comprehensive approach to teaching ethics in education.</em></p> Hafiz Javed ur Rehman, Athar Farooq, Muhammad Ismail Copyright (c) 2023 Al-Idah https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://www.al-idah.pk/index.php/al-idah/article/view/884 Wed, 20 Dec 2023 00:00:00 -0500 Taxes in Islam and Islamic civilization from an Islamic perspective https://www.al-idah.pk/index.php/al-idah/article/view/855 <p><em>In accordance with what is necessary for the common good, the State has the right and the ability to impose responsibilities and organise obligations on persons within its borders. A tax is one of the most significant compulsory duties placed on individuals by the state. To impose mandatory levies on persons or corporations by governments was the definition of taxation. Almost every nation collects some form of taxation, usually from its citizens, to fund governmental operations and services. The tax is collected for the benefit of the State Treasury by forcibly deducting a portion of individual income. To meet these commitments, governments impose taxes on their citizens as a means of raising revenue to fund essential services and advance the nation's economic, social, and political agendas.</em></p> Syed Raza Shah Gilani, Muhammad Haroon Khan, Ali Mohammed Al-Matrooshi Copyright (c) 2023 Al-Idah https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://www.al-idah.pk/index.php/al-idah/article/view/855 Wed, 20 Dec 2023 00:00:00 -0500 Exploring the Global Impact of Homosexuality: A Comprehensive Analysis from Islamic Perspective https://www.al-idah.pk/index.php/al-idah/article/view/882 <p><em>No one can deny the fact that apart from food and drink, human beings also have sexual desires and the satisfaction of carnal desires is natural for human beings. Like the rest of the physical needs, the sexual pleasure has been regulated through the institution of marriage which is the basic unit of an Islamic society. There has always been illicit/unnatural means to fulfill this physical need such as homosexuality – an unnatural method that may lead to the spread of many diseases. Ironically it has been given a legal accreditation in many countries of Europe, America and in other parts of the world. The article reviews the social impact of homosexuality in any given society with the rise in the rate of crime and diseases in these countries.</em></p> Farhat Naseem Alvi, Muhammad Haroon Copyright (c) 2023 Al-Idah https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://www.al-idah.pk/index.php/al-idah/article/view/882 Wed, 20 Dec 2023 00:00:00 -0500