Rights and Responsibilities of Non-Muslim Citizens in Pakistan: Some Reflections from Madina Charter

غیرمسلم شہریوں کے حقوق و فر ائص: پاکستانی تناظر میں میثاق مدینہ سے استفادہ

  • Riaz Ahmad Saeed Assistant Professor, Department of Islamic Studies, NUML Islamabad
  • Hafiz Muhammad Aftab Khan Lecturer, Govt: Boys College Baloch Sudhnoti AJK
Keywords: Madina Charter, non-Muslims, rights and duties, Pakistan, reflections


Every aspect of the Holy Prophet's (PBUH) life is a treasury of deep wisdom and guidance. The focus of this article is to study an important aspect of his Seerah i.e. as a ruler. The Madina state was a state which had a confederation of units with socio- political autonomy. The Holy Prophet (SAWW) made various covenants for the development and better defense of the Madina state. The charter of Madina is the basic document that allows us to understand various aspects of his governance. He set out the rights and duties of all citizens including non-Muslims including the Jewish tribes who have been living there since long and had almost occupied the financial resources of Medina. Therefore, there was a need to regulate this anomaly and establish a balance in society through judicious allocation of rights and duties within an Islamic state. Their role was so defined so as to ensure development and stability of the State. The Madina charter guaranteed protection of all kinds of religious, political and social rights and liberties. Thus the Madina charter is a key document to study how a peaceful society may be established. It sheds light on his political and constitutional struggle.  This study is an effort to investigate the Charter of Madina as to how the rights of religious minorities are secured and to draw a comparison of their rights and duties in the constitution of Pakistan, an Islamic State. An analytical research methodology is adopted in this study the above cited topic.

Keeping the charter of Madina in view, a few similarities between the State of Madina and Pakistan are drawn. The constitution of Pakistan also guarantees religious freedom and holds that a citizen may practise any religion. These  and other similarities shall be highlighted in this study.

How to Cite
Riaz Ahmad Saeed and Aftab Khan , H.M. 2023. Rights and Responsibilities of Non-Muslim Citizens in Pakistan: Some Reflections from Madina Charter . Al-Idah . 41, - 2 (Dec. 2023), 261 - 288. DOI:https://doi.org/10.37556/al-idah.041.02.0840.